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独立主格结构的把握理解与运用

http://www.yiyingyu.com - 发布时间:2010-07-30 - 所在栏目: 语法改错

在中学英语语法中,独立主格结构运用应该相当普遍。但有些同学对这个语法认识不够,故而对句子的理解甚至于整个语篇的把握也就出现了偏差。独立主格结构到底是什么一个结构特征,又有什么具体用法以及如何去识别与运用,下面我们来分析:


一、有关独立主格结构的基本概念


独立主格结构是一个名词或代词(作为逻辑主语),加上一个形容词、副词、介词短语、分词、不定式等在句中作状语。它有以下三个特点:


1. 独立主格结构的逻辑主语与句子的主语不同,它独立存在。


2. 名词或代词与后面的形容词、副词、介词短语、分词、不定式等存在逻辑上的主谓关系。


3. 独立主格结构一般用逗号与主句分开,但与主句之间不能使用任何连接词。


 


二、独立主格结构的常见形式


1. 名词(代词)+现在分词


the question being settled, we went home. 问题解决之后,我们就回家了。


we shall play the match tomorrow, weather permitting. 明天假设天气好,我们就进行比赛。


the monitor being ill, we’d better put the meeting off. 班长病了,我们最好还是延期开会吧。


2. 名词(代词)+过去分词


the job finished, we went home. 工作结束后我们就回家了。


the last bus having gone, we had to walk home. 最后一班公车已经走了我们必须走路回家。


more time given, we should have done the job much better. 如果给我们更多的时间,我们会把工作做得更好。


3. 名词(代词)+不定式


nobody to come tomorrow, we will have to put off the meeting till next week. 如果明天没有人来,我们将把会议推迟到下周。


so many people to help him, he is sure to succeed. 有如此多的人来帮助他,他一定会成功的。


4. 名词(代词)+介词短语


the soldiers dashed in, rifle in hand. 士兵们端着枪冲了进来。


a girl came in, book in hand. 一个少女进来了,手里拿着书。


he was waiting, his eyes on her back. 他在等着,眼睛望着她的背影。


5. 名词(代词)+形容词或副词


he sat in the front row, his mouth half open. 他坐在前排,嘴半开着。


she sat at the table, collar off, head down, and pen in position, ready to begin the long letter. 她坐在桌前,衣领已解掉,头低了下来,拿好钢笔,准备开始写一封长信。


6. there being +名词(代词)


there being nothing else to do, we went home. 没有别的事可做,我们就回家了。


there being no further business, i declare the meeting closed. 没有再要讨论的事了,我宣布散会。


7. it being +名词(代词)


it being christmas, the government offices were closed. 由于圣诞节的缘故,政府机关都休息。


it being a holiday, all the shops were shut. 由于今天是假日,所有商店都关门了。


注:独立主格结构有时可在其前加上介词with。如:


don’t sleep with the windows open. 别开着窗睡觉。


he stood before his teacher with his head down. 他低着头站在老师面前。


he was lying on the bed with all his clothes on. 他和衣躺在床上。


she came in with a book in her hand. 她手里拿着一本书走了进来。


he fell asleep with the lamp burning. 他没熄灯就睡着了。


i won’t be able to go on holiday with my mother being ill. 因为妈妈有病,我无法去度假。


he sat there with his eyes closed. 他闭目坐在那儿。


all the afternoon he worked with the door locked. 整个下午他都锁着门在房里工作。


i can’t go out with all these clothes to wash. 要洗这些衣服,我无法出去了。


三、英语独立主格结构的用法


独立主格结构主要表示谓语动词发生的时间、原因、条件或伴随情况等,相当于一个状语从句或并列句。      


1. 用作时间状语


the work done (=after the work had been done), we went home. 工作完成后,我们就回家了。


2. 用作条件状语


weather permitting (=if weather permits), they will go on an outing to the beach tomorrow. 如果天气允许的话,他们将在明天组织一次海滨小游。


3. 用作原因状语


an important lecture to be given tomorrow (=as an important lecture will be given tomorrow), the professor has to stay up late into the night. 因为明天要发表一个重要的演讲,教授不得不熬夜到很晚。


4. 用作伴随状语


he was lying on the grass, his hands crossed under his head (=and his hands were crossed under his head).他躺在草地上,两手交叉枕在脑后。


5. 表示补充说明


a hunter came in, his face red with cold (=and his face was red with cold). 一个猎人走了进来,他的脸冻得通红。


we redoubled our efforts, each man working like two. 我们加倍努力,一个人干两个人的活。


注:独立主格结构表示时间、条件或原因时,相当于一个状语从句,一般放在句首,表示原因时还可放在句末;表伴随状况或补充说明时,相当于一个并列句,通常放于句末。


 


四、使用独立主格结构的几点注意


1. 当状语从句的主语与主句的主语不是指同一个对象时,可用独立主格结构取代状语从句,但不再保留连词。如:


after class was over (=class being over / class over), the students soon left the classroom.下课后,学生很快离开了课室。


2. 在下列两种情况下,独立主格结构中的being(或having been)不能省略:


(1) 独立主格的逻辑主语是代词时。如:


it being sunday, we went to church.因为是星期天,我们去了做礼拜。


(2) there being+名词的结构中。如:


there being no bus, we had to go home on foot.因为没有公共汽车,所以我们不得不步行回家。


3. 名词(或代词)+介词短语构成的独立主格结构中,一般不用形容词性物主代词和冠词。如:


miss smith entered the classroom, book in hand.史密斯先生走进了课室,手里拿着一本书。


比较with的复合结构:miss smith entered the classroom, with a book in his hand.


4. 独立主格结构没有所有格形式。如:


the chief-editor arriving, we began the meeting. 主编来了,我们开始开会。


比较动名词复合结构:


the chief-editor’s arriving made us very surprised.


5. 独立主格结构作时间或原因状语时,可用完成时,表示该动作发生在谓语之前。如:


the listeners having taken their seats, the concert began.听众坐好后,音乐会开始了。


tom having been late over and over, his boss was very disappointed.由于汤姆一再迟到,他的老板非常失望。

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