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PETS五级冲刺语法复习之分词

http://www.yiyingyu.com - 发布时间:2010-08-02 - 所在栏目: 公共英语
 【分词】

  分词作定语


  1.分词前置


  we can see the rising sun。我们可以看到东升的旭日


  he is a retired worker。他是位退休的工人。


  2.分词后置(i。分词词组;ii。个别分词如given, left; iii。修饰不定代词something等)


  there was a girl sitting there。有个女孩坐在那里


  this is the question given。这是所给的问题


  there is nothing interesting。没有有趣的东西


  过去分词作定语


  与其修饰的词是被动关系,相当于一个被动语态的定语从句。


  most of the people invited to the party were famous scientists。


  most of the artists invited to the party were from south africa。


  典型例题


  1) the first textbook ___ for teaching english as a foreign language came out in the 16th century。


  a. have written  b. to be written  c. being written  d. written


  答案d。书与写作是被动关系,应用过去分词做定语表被动,相当于定语从句which is written


  2)what's the language ____ in germany?


  a. speaking  b. spoken   c. be spoken  d. to speak


  答案b。主语language与谓语动词之间有被动的含义。


  spoken是动词speak的过去分词形式,在句中作定语,修饰主语language, spoken与language有被动关系。


  该句可以理解为:


  what's the language (which is) spoken in german?


  分词作状语


  as i didn't receive any letter from him, i gave him a call。


  -> not receiving any letter from him, i gave him a call。


  由于没有收到他的信,我给他打了电话。


  if more attention was given, the trees could have grown better。


  -> given more attention,the trees could have grown better。


  假如多给些照顾,那些树会长得更好。


  典型例题


  1)_____ some officials, napoleon inspected his army。


  a. followed  b. followed by  c. being followed  d. having been followed


  答案b. napoleon与follow之间有被动的含义。being followed除表达被动之外,还有动作正在进行之意。followed by(被.。.跟随)。


  本题可改为:with some officials following, napoleon inspected his army。


  2)there was a terrible noise ___ the sudden burst of light。


  a. followed  b. following  c. to be followed  d. being followed


  答案b。由于声音在闪电后,因此为声跟随着光,声音为跟随的发出者,为主动。用现在分词。


  3)_______, liquids can be changed into gases。


  a. heating  b. to be heated  c. heated  d. heat


  答案c。本题要选一分词作为状语。现在分词表主动,正在进行的;过去分词表被动的,已经完成的。对于液体来说是加热的受动者,是被动的,因而选c。它相当于一个状语从句 when it is heated,.。.


  注意:选择现在分词还是过去分词,关键看主句的主语。如分词的动作是主句的主语发出,分词就选用现在分词,反之就用过去分词。


  (being ) used for a long time, the book looks old。


  由于用了很长时间,这本书看上去很旧。


  using the book, i find it useful。


  在使用的过程中, 我发现这本书很有用。

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